Rare Endocrinology News

Disease Profile

Reactive arthritis

Prevalence
Prevalence estimates on Rare Medical Network websites are calculated based on data available from numerous sources, including US and European government statistics, the NIH, Orphanet, and published epidemiologic studies. Rare disease population data is recognized to be highly variable, and based on a wide variety of source data and methodologies, so the prevalence data on this site should be assumed to be estimated and cannot be considered to be absolutely correct.
1-9 / 100 000

3,310 - 29,790

US Estimated

1-9 / 100 000

5,135 - 46,215

Europe Estimated

Age of onset

All ages

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ICD-10

M02.3

Inheritance

Autosomal dominant A pathogenic variant in only one gene copy in each cell is sufficient to cause an autosomal dominant disease

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Autosomal recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of each gene of the chromosome are needed to cause an autosomal recessive disease and observe the mutant phenotype

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X-linked
dominant X-linked dominant inheritance, sometimes referred to as X-linked dominance, is a mode of genetic inheritance by which a dominant gene is carried on the X chromosome.

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X-linked
recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of a gene on the X chromosome cause an X-linked recessive disorder

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Mitochondrial or multigenic Mitochondrial genetic disorders can be caused by changes (mutations) in either the mitochondrial DNA or nuclear DNA that lead to dysfunction of the mitochondria and inadequate production of energy.

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Multigenic or multifactor Inheritance involving many factors, of which at least one is genetic but none is of overwhelming importance, as in the causation of a disease by multiple genetic and environmental factors.

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Not applicable

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Other names (AKA)

Post-infectious arthritis; Post-infectious reactive arthropathy; PIRA;

Categories

Musculoskeletal Diseases

Summary

Reactive arthritis is a type of infectious arthritis that occurs as a “reaction” to an infection elsewhere in the body. This process may occur weeks or even months after the infection has resolved.[1][2] In addition to joint inflammation, reactive arthritis is associated with two other symptoms: redness and inflammation of the eyes (conjunctivitis) and inflammation of the urinary tract (urethritis). These symptoms may occur alone, together, or not at all. The symptoms of reactive arthritis usually last 3 to 12 months, although symptoms can return or develop into a long-term disease in a small percentage of people.[1] The exact cause of reactive arthritis is unknown. It may follow an infection with Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella typhimurium, Yersinia enterocolitica, Campylobacter jejuni, Clostridium difficile, Shigella sonnei, Entamoeba histolytica, Cryptosporidium, or Chlamydia trachomatis. Certain genes may make you more prone to the syndrome.[1][2][3] For instance, the condition is observed more commonly in patients with human lymphocyte antigen B27 (HLA-B27) histocompatibility antigens.[2] The goal of treatment is to relieve symptoms and treat any underlying infection. Antibiotics may be prescribed. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS), pain relievers, and corticosteroids may be recommended for those with joint pain.[3]

Symptoms

This table lists symptoms that people with this disease may have. For most diseases, symptoms will vary from person to person. People with the same disease may not have all the symptoms listed. This information comes from a database called the Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) . The HPO collects information on symptoms that have been described in medical resources. The HPO is updated regularly. Use the HPO ID to access more in-depth information about a symptom.

Medical Terms Other Names
Learn More:
HPO ID
80%-99% of people have these symptoms
Arthralgia
Joint pain
0002829
Arthritis
Joint inflammation
0001369
Cartilage destruction
0100773
Cognitive impairment
Abnormality of cognition
Cognitive abnormality
Cognitive defects
Cognitive deficits
Intellectual impairment
Mental impairment

[ more ]

0100543
Conjunctivitis
Pink eye
0000509
Diarrhea
Watery stool
0002014
Dystrophic fingernails
Poor fingernail formation
0008391
Enthesitis
0100686
Hyperkeratosis
0000962
Joint stiffness
Stiff joint
Stiff joints

[ more ]

0001387
Joint swelling
0001386
Osteomyelitis
Bone infection
0002754
Pustule
Pimple
0200039
Recurrent aphthous stomatitis
Recurrent canker sores
0011107
30%-79% of people have these symptoms
Abdominal pain
Pain in stomach
Stomach pain

[ more ]

0002027
Abnormal pleura morphology
0002103
Inflammation of the large intestine
0002037
5%-29% of people have these symptoms
Aortic regurgitation
0001659
Fever
0001945
Pericarditis
Swelling or irritation of membrane around heart
0001701
Photophobia
Extreme sensitivity of the eyes to light
Light hypersensitivity

[ more ]

0000613
Pulmonary fibrosis
0002206
Recurrent urinary tract infections
Frequent urinary tract infections
Repeated bladder infections
Repeated urinary tract infections
Urinary tract infections
Urinary tract infections, recurrent

[ more ]

0000010
Respiratory insufficiency
Respiratory impairment
0002093
Weight loss
0001824

Organizations

Support and advocacy groups can help you connect with other patients and families, and they can provide valuable services. Many develop patient-centered information and are the driving force behind research for better treatments and possible cures. They can direct you to research, resources, and services. Many organizations also have experts who serve as medical advisors or provide lists of doctors/clinics. Visit the group’s website or contact them to learn about the services they offer. Inclusion on this list is not an endorsement by GARD.

Organizations Supporting this Disease

    Organizations Providing General Support

      Learn more

      These resources provide more information about this condition or associated symptoms. The in-depth resources contain medical and scientific language that may be hard to understand. You may want to review these resources with a medical professional.

      Where to Start

      • MedlinePlus was designed by the National Library of Medicine to help you research your health questions, and it provides more information about this topic.
      • The National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS) support research into the causes, treatment, and prevention of arthritis and musculoskeletal and skin diseases, the training of basic and clinical scientists to carry out this research, and the dissemination of information on research progress in these diseases. Click on the link to view information on this topic.
      • The National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD) has a report for patients and families about this condition. NORD is a patient advocacy organization for individuals with rare diseases and the organizations that serve them.

        In-Depth Information

        • Medscape Reference provides information on this topic. You may need to register to view the medical textbook, but registration is free.
        • The Monarch Initiative brings together data about this condition from humans and other species to help physicians and biomedical researchers. Monarch’s tools are designed to make it easier to compare the signs and symptoms (phenotypes) of different diseases and discover common features. This initiative is a collaboration between several academic institutions across the world and is funded by the National Institutes of Health. Visit the website to explore the biology of this condition.
        • Orphanet is a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Access to this database is free of charge.
        • PubMed is a searchable database of medical literature and lists journal articles that discuss Reactive arthritis. Click on the link to view a sample search on this topic.

          References

          1. Arnett F, Clegg D, Inman R, Klippel JH, Mittleman B, Schumacher R, Tyree B. Questions and Answers about Reactive Arthritis. National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS). September 2011; https://www.niams.nih.gov/Health_Info/Reactive_Arthritis/default.asp.
          2. Brusch JL. Septic Arthritis. eMedicine. July 2011; https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/236299-overview#showall. Accessed 3/31/2012.
          3. Gonter NJ. Reactive arthritis. MedlinePlus. June 2011; https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000440.htm. Accessed 3/31/2012.