Rare Endocrinology News

Disease Profile

Poliomyelitis

Prevalence
Prevalence estimates on Rare Medical Network websites are calculated based on data available from numerous sources, including US and European government statistics, the NIH, Orphanet, and published epidemiologic studies. Rare disease population data is recognized to be highly variable, and based on a wide variety of source data and methodologies, so the prevalence data on this site should be assumed to be estimated and cannot be considered to be absolutely correct.
<1 / 1 000 000

< 331

US Estimated

< 514

Europe Estimated

Age of onset

Childhood

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ICD-10

A80.0 A80.1 A80.2 A80.3 A80.4 A80.9

Inheritance

Autosomal dominant A pathogenic variant in only one gene copy in each cell is sufficient to cause an autosomal dominant disease

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Autosomal recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of each gene of the chromosome are needed to cause an autosomal recessive disease and observe the mutant phenotype

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X-linked
dominant X-linked dominant inheritance, sometimes referred to as X-linked dominance, is a mode of genetic inheritance by which a dominant gene is carried on the X chromosome.

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X-linked
recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of a gene on the X chromosome cause an X-linked recessive disorder

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Mitochondrial or multigenic Mitochondrial genetic disorders can be caused by changes (mutations) in either the mitochondrial DNA or nuclear DNA that lead to dysfunction of the mitochondria and inadequate production of energy.

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Multigenic or multifactor Inheritance involving many factors, of which at least one is genetic but none is of overwhelming importance, as in the causation of a disease by multiple genetic and environmental factors.

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Not applicable

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Other names (AKA)

Polio; Infantile paralysis

Categories

Nervous System Diseases; Viral infections

Summary

Poliomyelitis is a viral disease that can affect nerves and can lead to partial or full paralysis. It is caused by infection with the poliovirus which can be spread by direct person-to-person contact, by contact with infected mucus or phlegm from the nose or mouth, or by contact with infected feces. There are three basic patterns of polio infection: subclinical infections, nonparalytic, and paralytic.[1] Symptoms vary based on the pattern of infection and can range from asymptomatic with subclinical poliomyelitis to partial or full paralysis. Treatment is aimed at controlling symptoms while the infection runs its course. Since the development of the polio vaccine, the incidence of the disease has been greatly reduced.[2] The prognosis depends on the form of the disease (subclinical, nonparalytic, or paralytic) and the site affected.[1]

Symptoms

This table lists symptoms that people with this disease may have. For most diseases, symptoms will vary from person to person. People with the same disease may not have all the symptoms listed. This information comes from a database called the Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) . The HPO collects information on symptoms that have been described in medical resources. The HPO is updated regularly. Use the HPO ID to access more in-depth information about a symptom.

Medical Terms Other Names
Learn More:
HPO ID
30%-79% of people have these symptoms
Abnormal motor nerve conduction velocity
0040131
Anorexia
0002039
Areflexia
Absent tendon reflexes
0001284
Arthralgia
Joint pain
0002829
Brisk reflexes
0001348
Exercise intolerance
Decreased ability to exercise
Inability to exercise

[ more ]

0003546
Fatigue
Tired
Tiredness

[ more ]

0012378
Fever
0001945
Headache
Headaches
0002315
Hypoplasia of the musculature
Poorly developed skeletal musculature
Underdeveloped muscle

[ more ]

0009004
Low self esteem
0031469
Lower limb muscle weakness
Lower extremity weakness
Lower limb weakness
Muscle weakness in lower limbs

[ more ]

0007340
Meningitis
0001287
Muscle flaccidity
0010547
Myalgia
Muscle ache
Muscle pain

[ more ]

0003326
Myelitis
Inflammation of spinal cord
0012486
Nausea
0002018
Paralysis
Inability to move
0003470
Pharyngitis
0025439
Skeletal muscle atrophy
Muscle degeneration
Muscle wasting

[ more ]

0003202
Stiff neck
Neck stiffness
0025258
Vomiting
Throwing up
0002013
5%-29% of people have these symptoms
Absent tonsils
0030813
Bulbar palsy
0001283
Bulbar signs
0002483
Cranial nerve paralysis
0006824
Diminished movement
0002374
Dysphagia
Poor swallowing
Swallowing difficulties
Swallowing difficulty

[ more ]

0002015
Dysphonia
Inability to produce voice sounds
0001618
Fasciculations
Muscle twitch
0002380
Fatigable weakness of respiratory muscles
0030196
Hyperkinetic movements
Muscle spasms
0002487
Immunodeficiency
Decreased immune function
0002721
Impairment of activities of daily living
0031058
Inability to walk
0002540
Paralytic ileus
0002590
Paraparesis
Partial paralysis of legs
0002385
Paresthesia
Pins and needles feeling
Tingling

[ more ]

0003401
Respiratory failure
0002878
Respiratory failure requiring assisted ventilation
0004887
Upper limb muscle weakness
Decreased arm strength
Weak arm

[ more ]

0003484
1%-4% of people have these symptoms
Agitation
0000713
Coma
0001259
Confusion
Disorientation
Easily confused
Mental disorientation

[ more ]

0001289
Encephalitis
Brain inflammation
0002383
Hypertension
0000822
Hypotension
Low blood pressure
0002615
Hypovolemic shock
0031274
Irritability
Irritable
0000737

Learn more

These resources provide more information about this condition or associated symptoms. The in-depth resources contain medical and scientific language that may be hard to understand. You may want to review these resources with a medical professional.

Where to Start

  • MedlinePlus was designed by the National Library of Medicine to help you research your health questions, and it provides more information about this topic.
  • The Merck Manuals Online Medical Library provides information on this condition for patients and caregivers.
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) produces guidelines and standards, helps countries to address public health issues, and supports and promotes health research. The WHO has developed a fact sheet on this condition.

In-Depth Information

  • Medscape Reference provides information on this topic. You may need to register to view the medical textbook, but registration is free.
    Poliomyelitis
    Acute Poliomyelitis
    Pediatric Poliomyelitis
  • The Monarch Initiative brings together data about this condition from humans and other species to help physicians and biomedical researchers. Monarch’s tools are designed to make it easier to compare the signs and symptoms (phenotypes) of different diseases and discover common features. This initiative is a collaboration between several academic institutions across the world and is funded by the National Institutes of Health. Visit the website to explore the biology of this condition.
  • Orphanet is a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Access to this database is free of charge.
  • PubMed is a searchable database of medical literature and lists journal articles that discuss Poliomyelitis. Click on the link to view a sample search on this topic.

References

  1. Vorvick L, Vyas JM. Poliomyelitis. MedlinePlus. 8/31/2014; https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001402.htm.
  2. James P. Alexander, Gregory S. Wallace, Steven G. F. Wassilak. Poliomyelitis. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). July 10, 2015; https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/yellowbook/2016/infectious-diseases-related-to-travel/poliomyelitis.