Rare Endocrinology News

Disease Profile

Hemangioendothelioma

Prevalence
Prevalence estimates on Rare Medical Network websites are calculated based on data available from numerous sources, including US and European government statistics, the NIH, Orphanet, and published epidemiologic studies. Rare disease population data is recognized to be highly variable, and based on a wide variety of source data and methodologies, so the prevalence data on this site should be assumed to be estimated and cannot be considered to be absolutely correct.

Unknown

Age of onset

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ICD-10

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Inheritance

Autosomal dominant A pathogenic variant in only one gene copy in each cell is sufficient to cause an autosomal dominant disease

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Autosomal recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of each gene of the chromosome are needed to cause an autosomal recessive disease and observe the mutant phenotype

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X-linked
dominant X-linked dominant inheritance, sometimes referred to as X-linked dominance, is a mode of genetic inheritance by which a dominant gene is carried on the X chromosome.

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X-linked
recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of a gene on the X chromosome cause an X-linked recessive disorder

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Mitochondrial or multigenic Mitochondrial genetic disorders can be caused by changes (mutations) in either the mitochondrial DNA or nuclear DNA that lead to dysfunction of the mitochondria and inadequate production of energy.

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Multigenic or multifactor Inheritance involving many factors, of which at least one is genetic but none is of overwhelming importance, as in the causation of a disease by multiple genetic and environmental factors.

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Not applicable

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Categories

Rare Cancers

Summary

The term hemangioendothelioma describes several types of vascular neosplasms and includes both non-cancerous (benign) and cancerous (malignant) growths. The term has also been applied to those that show "borderline" behavior, intermediate between entirely benign hemangiomas and highly malignant angiosarcomas.[1] Hemangioendotheliomas are caused by abnormal growth of blood vessel cells, although the exact underlying cause for the abnormal growth is unknown. They can also develop in an organ, such as the liver or lung. They usually grow slowly and can sometimes spread to other tissues in the body (metastasize).[2][1] Examples of types of hemangioendotheliomas include spindle cell hemangioma; papillary intralymphatic (Dabska tumor); retiform; kaposiform; epithelioid; pseudomyogenic (epithelioid sarcoma-like hemangioendothelioma); and composite.[1] Treatment depends on the type of hemangioendothelioma present but typically includes surgical excision (removal).

Treatment

Treatment for hemangioendothelioma may depend on the type of hemangioendothelioma present in the affected individual and the risk of recurrence or metastases. In most reported cases, surgical excision (removal) of the mass has been the only treatment. For spindle cell hemangioma, simple excision is reportedly curative; however, new growths develop in adjacent skin and soft tissues in 60% of affected individuals. For individuals with papillary intralymphatic angioendothelioma (PILA), excision of the involved lymph nodes, as well as the mass, has been recommended. Surgical excision is reportedly also the usual treatment for individuals with retiform hemangioendothelioma (although local recurrence with this type is common), epithelioid hemangioendothelioma, and composite hemangioendothelioma (with the exception of 1 case treated with interferon).

Most individuals with pseudomyogenic hemangioendothelioma have been treated with simple excision, but a few individuals have also received post-surgical radiotherapy (RT).

With regard to kaposiform hemangioendothelioma, some large lesions cannot be completely removed and may cause fatal complications due to the associated Kasabach–Merritt syndrome. In these cases, several medical therapies have been used, including systemic corticosteroids; alfa interferon; RT; embolization; and several other therapies, both alone and in various combinations.[1]

A study by Scott et al published in 2012 in the American Journal of Clinical Oncology evaluated the effectiveness of RT as either an alternative or adjunct to surgery. The authors stated that the effectiveness of definitive RT in the treatment of hemangioendothelioma in their study implies that radiation may be an acceptable alternative when surgical resection will compromise function or cosmetic result. They concluded that with no local recurrences and minimal risk of toxicity, their long-term data suggest that RT offers a highly effective management option for this disease.[3]

Organizations

Support and advocacy groups can help you connect with other patients and families, and they can provide valuable services. Many develop patient-centered information and are the driving force behind research for better treatments and possible cures. They can direct you to research, resources, and services. Many organizations also have experts who serve as medical advisors or provide lists of doctors/clinics. Visit the group’s website or contact them to learn about the services they offer. Inclusion on this list is not an endorsement by GARD.

Organizations Supporting this Disease

    Organizations Providing General Support

      Learn more

      These resources provide more information about this condition or associated symptoms. The in-depth resources contain medical and scientific language that may be hard to understand. You may want to review these resources with a medical professional.

      Where to Start

      • The American Cancer Society provides information on hemangioendothelioma in a fact sheet on soft-tissue sarcomas.
      • The National Cancer Institute provides the most current information on cancer for patients, health professionals, and the general public.

        In-Depth Information

        • The Monarch Initiative brings together data about this condition from humans and other species to help physicians and biomedical researchers. Monarch’s tools are designed to make it easier to compare the signs and symptoms (phenotypes) of different diseases and discover common features. This initiative is a collaboration between several academic institutions across the world and is funded by the National Institutes of Health. Visit the website to explore the biology of this condition.
        • PubMed is a searchable database of medical literature and lists journal articles that discuss Hemangioendothelioma. Click on the link to view a sample search on this topic.

          References

          1. Requena L, Kutzner H. Hemangioendothelioma. Semin. Diagn. Pathol. February 2013; 30(1):29-44.
          2. Sarcoma Adult Soft Tissue Cancer. American Cancer Society. July 6, 2010; https://www.cancer.org/Cancer/Sarcoma-AdultSoftTissueCancer/DetailedGuide/sarcoma-adult-soft-tissue-cancer-soft-tissue-sarcoma. Accessed 2/14/2011.
          3. Michael T. Scott et al. Radiation Therapy for Hemangioendothelioma: The University of Florida Experience. American Journal of Clinical Oncology. 2012;

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