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Disease Profile

Spinocerebellar ataxia 19 and 22

Prevalence
Prevalence estimates on Rare Medical Network websites are calculated based on data available from numerous sources, including US and European government statistics, the NIH, Orphanet, and published epidemiologic studies. Rare disease population data is recognized to be highly variable, and based on a wide variety of source data and methodologies, so the prevalence data on this site should be assumed to be estimated and cannot be considered to be absolutely correct.
<1 / 1 000 000

< 331

US Estimated

< 514

Europe Estimated

Age of onset

Adult

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ICD-10

G11.2

Inheritance

Autosomal dominant A pathogenic variant in only one gene copy in each cell is sufficient to cause an autosomal dominant disease

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Autosomal recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of each gene of the chromosome are needed to cause an autosomal recessive disease and observe the mutant phenotype

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X-linked
dominant X-linked dominant inheritance, sometimes referred to as X-linked dominance, is a mode of genetic inheritance by which a dominant gene is carried on the X chromosome.

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X-linked
recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of a gene on the X chromosome cause an X-linked recessive disorder

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Mitochondrial or multigenic Mitochondrial genetic disorders can be caused by changes (mutations) in either the mitochondrial DNA or nuclear DNA that lead to dysfunction of the mitochondria and inadequate production of energy.

Multigenic or multifactor Inheritance involving many factors, of which at least one is genetic but none is of overwhelming importance, as in the causation of a disease by multiple genetic and environmental factors.

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Not applicable

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Other names (AKA)

SCA19/22

Categories

Congenital and Genetic Diseases; Nervous System Diseases

Summary

The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs.
orphanet

Orpha Number: 98772

Definition
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 19 (SCA19) is a very rare subtype of type I autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia (ADCA type I; see this term). It is characterized by mild cerebellar ataxia, cognitive impairment, low scores on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test measuring executive function, myoclonus, and postural tremor.

Epidemiology
Prevalence is unknown. Only 12 cases in a 5-generation Dutch family have been reported to date.

Clinical description
SCA19 presents in the 3rd decade of life with symptomatic disease onset ranging from 10 to 46 years. Onset symptoms of SCA22 (see this term) overlap significantly with those of SCA19 but with a more narrow age range of 35 to 46 years.

Etiology
Linkage to locus 1p21-q21 has been proposed but the gene mutation has not been identified.

Prognosis
Prognosis is good. SCA19 does not impact life expectancy to any major extent, and some patients live to over 80 years of age.

Visit the Orphanet disease page for more resources.

Symptoms

This table lists symptoms that people with this disease may have. For most diseases, symptoms will vary from person to person. People with the same disease may not have all the symptoms listed. This information comes from a database called the Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) . The HPO collects information on symptoms that have been described in medical resources. The HPO is updated regularly. Use the HPO ID to access more in-depth information about a symptom.

Medical Terms Other Names
Learn More:
HPO ID
80%-99% of people have these symptoms
Difficulty walking
Difficulty in walking
0002355
30%-79% of people have these symptoms
Cerebellar atrophy
Degeneration of cerebellum
0001272
Hyperreflexia
Increased reflexes
0001347
Hyporeflexia
Decreased reflex response
Decreased reflexes

[ more ]

0001265
Impaired vibration sensation at ankles
Decreased vibration sense at ankles
Decreased vibration sense in feet

[ more ]

0006938
Limb ataxia
0002070
Postural instability
Balance impairment
0002172
Truncal ataxia
Instability or lack of coordination of central trunk muscles
0002078
Urinary incontinence
Loss of bladder control
0000020
5%-29% of people have these symptoms
Broad-based gait
Wide based walk
0002136
Cogwheel rigidity
0002396
Diplopia
Double vision
0000651
Dysarthria
Difficulty articulating speech
0001260
Impaired smooth pursuit
0007772
Nystagmus
Involuntary, rapid, rhythmic eye movements
0000639
Ophthalmoplegia
Eye muscle paralysis
0000602
Poor coordination
0002370
Slurred speech
0001350

Organizations

Support and advocacy groups can help you connect with other patients and families, and they can provide valuable services. Many develop patient-centered information and are the driving force behind research for better treatments and possible cures. They can direct you to research, resources, and services. Many organizations also have experts who serve as medical advisors or provide lists of doctors/clinics. Visit the group’s website or contact them to learn about the services they offer. Inclusion on this list is not an endorsement by GARD.

Organizations Supporting this Disease

    Learn more

    These resources provide more information about this condition or associated symptoms. The in-depth resources contain medical and scientific language that may be hard to understand. You may want to review these resources with a medical professional.

    In-Depth Information

    • The Monarch Initiative brings together data about this condition from humans and other species to help physicians and biomedical researchers. Monarch’s tools are designed to make it easier to compare the signs and symptoms (phenotypes) of different diseases and discover common features. This initiative is a collaboration between several academic institutions across the world and is funded by the National Institutes of Health. Visit the website to explore the biology of this condition.
    • Orphanet is a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Access to this database is free of charge.