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Disease Profile

Rheumatoid factor-negative juvenile idiopathic arthritis

Prevalence estimates on Rare Medical Network websites are calculated based on data available from numerous sources, including US and European government statistics, the NIH, Orphanet, and published epidemiologic studies. Rare disease population data is recognized to be highly variable, and based on a wide variety of source data and methodologies, so the prevalence data on this site should be assumed to be estimated and cannot be considered to be absolutely correct.


US Estimated

Europe Estimated

Age of onset





Autosomal dominant A pathogenic variant in only one gene copy in each cell is sufficient to cause an autosomal dominant disease.


Autosomal recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of each gene of the chromosome are needed to cause an autosomal recessive disease and observe the mutant phenotype.


dominant X-linked dominant inheritance, sometimes referred to as X-linked dominance, is a mode of genetic inheritance by which a dominant gene is carried on the X chromosome.


recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of a gene on the X chromosome cause an X-linked recessive disorder.


Mitochondrial or multigenic Mitochondrial genetic disorders can be caused by changes (mutations) in either the mitochondrial DNA or nuclear DNA that lead to dysfunction of the mitochondria and inadequate production of energy.


Multigenic or multifactor Inheritance involving many factors, of which at least one is genetic but none is of overwhelming importance, as in the causation of a disease by multiple genetic and environmental factors.


Not applicable


Other names (AKA)

Rheumatoid factor negative erosive chronic polyarthritis; Rheumatoid factor-negative polyarthritis; RF-ve CP;


Connective tissue diseases


The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs.

Orpha Number: 85408

Rheumatoid factor-negative polyarthritis is a term used to describe a group of poorly defined heterogenous conditions that incorporates forms of rheumatoid factor-negative polyarthritis and forms of oligoarticular arthritis that become extensive in less than 6 months after onset.

Rheumatoid factor-negative polyarthritis represents around 15-20% of cases of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Prevalence has been estimated at between 1 and 13 in 22,200 children, with an annual incidence of 1-26 in 700,000 children. Females are affected more often than males.

Clinical description
The joint manifestations are bilateral, nearly symmetrical and affect both the large and small joints. Biological signs of inflammatory disease are frequent. Rheumatoid factor tests are always negative but antinuclear antibodies may be present.

The aetiology is difficult to determine as a result of the heterogeneity.

Diagnostic methods
The diagnostic criteria for the disease were established in 2001 at the last international meeting in Edmonton. Rheumatoid factor-negative polyarthritis is defined as the presence of arthritis affecting five or more joints at disease onset. Exclusion criteria are the presence of systemic arthritis or psoriasis in the patient, or a family history of psoriasis in one of the parents or a first-degree relative, HLA B27-positivity in males with onset of arthritis after 6 years of age, and detection of rheumatoid factor IgM in two test samples taken three months apart. Other exclusion criteria include: the presence of ankylosing spondylarthritis, enthesitis and arthritis, sacroiliitis with an inflammatory enteropathy or acute anterior uveitis in the patient, or a family history of one of these conditions in a parent or first-degree relative.

Differential diagnosis
The differential diagnosis should include other forms of polyarthritis (associated with inflammatory or haemato-oncologic diseases).

Management and treatment
Patients should be managed in a multidisciplinary manner, incorporating expertise in paediatric rheumatology, physiotherapy, psychologyand infantile orthopaedic care. Treatment is based on the association nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDS), disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (methotrexate as a first-line treatment and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha as a second-line treatment) and rehabilitation. Corticotherapy is used at low doses and as rarely as possible. Intraarticular injection of delayed-action corticoids (triamcinolone hexacetonide) may be recommended in case of persistent arthritis.

The prognosis is difficult to determine due to the heterogeneity of the condition but it appears the percentage of remission is low.

Visit the Orphanet disease page for more resources.


This table lists symptoms that people with this disease may have. For most diseases, symptoms will vary from person to person. People with the same disease may not have all the symptoms listed. This information comes from a database called the Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) . The HPO collects information on symptoms that have been described in medical resources. The HPO is updated regularly. Use the HPO ID to access more in-depth information about a symptom.

Medical Terms Other Names
Learn More:
80%-99% of people have these symptoms
Antinuclear antibody positivity
Joint pain
Dental malocclusion
Bad bite
Malalignment of upper and lower dental arches
Misalignment of upper and lower dental arches

[ more ]

Elevated C-reactive protein level
Elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate
High ESR
Joint dislocation
Joint dislocations
Recurrent joint dislocations

[ more ]

Joint swelling
Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis
Limitation of joint mobility
Decreased joint mobility
Decreased mobility of joints
Limited joint mobility
Limited joint motion

[ more ]

Polyarticular arthritis

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These resources provide more information about this condition or associated symptoms. The in-depth resources contain medical and scientific language that may be hard to understand. You may want to review these resources with a medical professional.

In-Depth Information

  • The Monarch Initiative brings together data about this condition from humans and other species to help physicians and biomedical researchers. Monarch’s tools are designed to make it easier to compare the signs and symptoms (phenotypes) of different diseases and discover common features. This initiative is a collaboration between several academic institutions across the world and is funded by the National Institutes of Health. Visit the website to explore the biology of this condition.
  • Orphanet is a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Access to this database is free of charge.
  • PubMed is a searchable database of medical literature and lists journal articles that discuss Rheumatoid factor-negative juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Click on the link to view a sample search on this topic.