Rare Endocrinology News

Disease Profile

Oculocutaneous albinism type 2

Prevalence
Prevalence estimates on Rare Medical Network websites are calculated based on data available from numerous sources, including US and European government statistics, the NIH, Orphanet, and published epidemiologic studies. Rare disease population data is recognized to be highly variable, and based on a wide variety of source data and methodologies, so the prevalence data on this site should be assumed to be estimated and cannot be considered to be absolutely correct.
1-9 / 100 000

3,310 - 29,790

US Estimated

1-9 / 100 000

5,135 - 46,215

Europe Estimated

Age of onset

Infancy

ageofonset-infancy.svg

ICD-10

E70.3

Inheritance

Autosomal dominant A pathogenic variant in only one gene copy in each cell is sufficient to cause an autosomal dominant disease

no.svg

Autosomal recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of each gene of the chromosome are needed to cause an autosomal recessive disease and observe the mutant phenotype

rnn-autosomalrecessive.svg

X-linked
dominant X-linked dominant inheritance, sometimes referred to as X-linked dominance, is a mode of genetic inheritance by which a dominant gene is carried on the X chromosome.

no.svg

X-linked
recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of a gene on the X chromosome cause an X-linked recessive disorder

no.svg

Mitochondrial or multigenic Mitochondrial genetic disorders can be caused by changes (mutations) in either the mitochondrial DNA or nuclear DNA that lead to dysfunction of the mitochondria and inadequate production of energy.

no.svg

Multigenic or multifactor Inheritance involving many factors, of which at least one is genetic but none is of overwhelming importance, as in the causation of a disease by multiple genetic and environmental factors.

no.svg

Not applicable

no.svg

Other names (AKA)

OCA2; Oculocutaneous albinism tyrosinase positive; Albinism 2;

Categories

Congenital and Genetic Diseases; Eye diseases; Metabolic disorders;

Summary

Oculocutaneous albinism type 2 is a genetic condition that affects the coloring (pigmentation) of the skin, hair, and eyes. Affected individuals typically have very fair skin and white or light-colored hair. Long-term sun exposure greatly increases the risk of skin damage and skin cancers, including an aggressive form of skin cancer called melanoma, in people with this condition. This condition also reduces pigmentation of the colored part of the eye (the iris) and the light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye (the retina). People with this condition usually have vision problems such as reduced sharpness; nystagmus and strabismus; and increased sensitivity to light (photophobia). This condition is caused by mutations in the OCA2 gene and is inherited in an autosomal recessive fashion.[1]

Symptoms

This table lists symptoms that people with this disease may have. For most diseases, symptoms will vary from person to person. People with the same disease may not have all the symptoms listed. This information comes from a database called the Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) . The HPO collects information on symptoms that have been described in medical resources. The HPO is updated regularly. Use the HPO ID to access more in-depth information about a symptom.

Medical Terms Other Names
Learn More:
HPO ID
80%-99% of people have these symptoms
Iris hypopigmentation
Light eye color
0007730
30%-79% of people have these symptoms
Abnormality of the optic nerve
Optic nerve issue
0000587
Albinism
0001022
Freckling
0001480
Nystagmus
Involuntary, rapid, rhythmic eye movements
0000639
Photophobia
Extreme sensitivity of the eyes to light
Light hypersensitivity

[ more ]

0000613
Strabismus
Cross-eyed
Squint
Squint eyes

[ more ]

0000486
Visual impairment
Impaired vision
Loss of eyesight
Poor vision

[ more ]

0000505
5%-29% of people have these symptoms
Basal cell carcinoma
0002671
Melanoma
0002861
Squamous cell carcinoma of the skin
0006739
Percent of people who have these symptoms is not available through HPO
Autosomal recessive inheritance
0000007
Blue irides
Blue eyes
0000635
Exotropia
Outward facing eye ball
0000577
Freckles in sun-exposed areas
0007603
Hypopigmentation of the fundus
0007894
Hypoplasia of the fovea
0007750
Myopia
Close sighted
Near sighted
Near sightedness
Nearsightedness

[ more ]

0000545
Red hair
Red hair color
Red head (hair color)

[ more ]

0002297
Reduced visual acuity
Decreased clarity of vision
0007663

Diagnosis

Making a diagnosis for a genetic or rare disease can often be challenging. Healthcare professionals typically look at a person’s medical history, symptoms, physical exam, and laboratory test results in order to make a diagnosis. The following resources provide information relating to diagnosis and testing for this condition. If you have questions about getting a diagnosis, you should contact a healthcare professional.

Testing Resources

  • The Genetic Testing Registry (GTR) provides information about the genetic tests for this condition. The intended audience for the GTR is health care providers and researchers. Patients and consumers with specific questions about a genetic test should contact a health care provider or a genetics professional.

    Organizations

    Support and advocacy groups can help you connect with other patients and families, and they can provide valuable services. Many develop patient-centered information and are the driving force behind research for better treatments and possible cures. They can direct you to research, resources, and services. Many organizations also have experts who serve as medical advisors or provide lists of doctors/clinics. Visit the group’s website or contact them to learn about the services they offer. Inclusion on this list is not an endorsement by GARD.

    Organizations Supporting this Disease

      Organizations Providing General Support

        Learn more

        These resources provide more information about this condition or associated symptoms. The in-depth resources contain medical and scientific language that may be hard to understand. You may want to review these resources with a medical professional.

        Where to Start

        • Genetics Home Reference (GHR) contains information on Oculocutaneous albinism type 2. This website is maintained by the National Library of Medicine.
        • The National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD) has a report for patients and families about this condition. NORD is a patient advocacy organization for individuals with rare diseases and the organizations that serve them.

          In-Depth Information

          • GeneReviews provides current, expert-authored, peer-reviewed, full-text articles describing the application of genetic testing to the diagnosis, management, and genetic counseling of patients with specific inherited conditions.
          • The Monarch Initiative brings together data about this condition from humans and other species to help physicians and biomedical researchers. Monarch’s tools are designed to make it easier to compare the signs and symptoms (phenotypes) of different diseases and discover common features. This initiative is a collaboration between several academic institutions across the world and is funded by the National Institutes of Health. Visit the website to explore the biology of this condition.
          • Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) is a catalog of human genes and genetic disorders. Each entry has a summary of related medical articles. It is meant for health care professionals and researchers. OMIM is maintained by Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. 
          • Orphanet is a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Access to this database is free of charge.
          • PubMed is a searchable database of medical literature and lists journal articles that discuss Oculocutaneous albinism type 2. Click on the link to view a sample search on this topic.

            References

            1. Oculocutaneous albinism. Genetics Home Reference. March 2007; https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/oculocutaneous-albinism. Accessed 10/15/2012.