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Disease Profile

Microphthalmia syndromic 5

Prevalence
Prevalence estimates on Rare Medical Network websites are calculated based on data available from numerous sources, including US and European government statistics, the NIH, Orphanet, and published epidemiologic studies. Rare disease population data is recognized to be highly variable, and based on a wide variety of source data and methodologies, so the prevalence data on this site should be assumed to be estimated and cannot be considered to be absolutely correct.
<1 / 1 000 000

< 331

US Estimated

< 514

Europe Estimated

Age of onset

Antenatal

ICD-10

Q11.2

Inheritance

Autosomal dominant A pathogenic variant in only one gene copy in each cell is sufficient to cause an autosomal dominant disease

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Autosomal recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of each gene of the chromosome are needed to cause an autosomal recessive disease and observe the mutant phenotype

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X-linked
dominant X-linked dominant inheritance, sometimes referred to as X-linked dominance, is a mode of genetic inheritance by which a dominant gene is carried on the X chromosome.

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X-linked
recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of a gene on the X chromosome cause an X-linked recessive disorder

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Mitochondrial or multigenic Mitochondrial genetic disorders can be caused by changes (mutations) in either the mitochondrial DNA or nuclear DNA that lead to dysfunction of the mitochondria and inadequate production of energy.

Multigenic or multifactor Inheritance involving many factors, of which at least one is genetic but none is of overwhelming importance, as in the causation of a disease by multiple genetic and environmental factors.

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Not applicable

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Other names (AKA)

MCOPS5; Syndromic microphthalmia type 5; OTX2-related eye disorders

Categories

Congenital and Genetic Diseases; Eye diseases

Summary

The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs.
orphanet

Orpha Number: 178364

Definition
Syndromic microphthalmia, type 5 is characterized by the association of a range of ocular anomalies (anophthalmia, microphthalmia and retinal abnormalities) with variable developmental delay and central nervous system malformations.

Epidemiology
Less than 20 cases have been reported in the literature so far.

Clinical description
The clinical picture is highly variable, even between affected members of the same family. Ocular findings ranged from bilateral anophthalmia, to severe or mild bior unilateral microphthalmia and retinal dystrophy. MRI may reveal optic nerve aplasia/hypoplasia, hippocampal malformations, structural abnormalities of the pituitary gland, and agenesis of the corpus callosum. Severe developmental delay was noted in some patients, whilst others showed normal cognitive development. Pituitary dysfunction, leading to growth hormone deficiency and short stature, or combined pituitary hormone deficiency (CPHD), has also been reported.

Etiology
The syndrome is caused by heterozygous mutations in the OTX2 gene (14q22.3).

Differential diagnosis
A similar phenotype with bilateral anophthalmia and pituitary abnormalities (with additional findings of limb defects, ear anomalies and facial dysmorphism) is found in patients carrying a deletion encompassing the OTX2 gene. Patients with the full clinical spectrum of ocular anomalies, central nervous system abnormalities and pituitary abnormalities also show significant overlap with septooptic dysplasia (see this term).

Visit the Orphanet disease page for more resources.

Symptoms

This table lists symptoms that people with this disease may have. For most diseases, symptoms will vary from person to person. People with the same disease may not have all the symptoms listed. This information comes from a database called the Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) . The HPO collects information on symptoms that have been described in medical resources. The HPO is updated regularly. Use the HPO ID to access more in-depth information about a symptom.

Medical Terms Other Names
Learn More:
HPO ID
5%-29% of people have these symptoms
Cleft palate
Cleft roof of mouth
0000175
Cryptorchidism
Undescended testes
Undescended testis

[ more ]

0000028
Ectopic posterior pituitary
0011755
Micropenis
Short penis
Small penis

[ more ]

0000054
Short stature
Decreased body height
Small stature

[ more ]

0004322
Percent of people who have these symptoms is not available through HPO
Anophthalmia
Absence of eyeballs
Failure of development of eyeball
Missing eyeball
No eyeball

[ more ]

0000528
Autosomal dominant inheritance
0000006
Cataract
Clouding of the lens of the eye
Cloudy lens

[ more ]

0000518
Coloboma
Notched pupil
0000589
Generalized hypotonia
Decreased muscle tone
Low muscle tone

[ more ]

0001290
Global developmental delay
0001263
Joint laxity
Joint instability
Lax joints
Loose-jointedness
Loosejointedness

[ more ]

0001388
Microcornea
Cornea of eye less than 10mm in diameter
0000482
Microphthalmia
Abnormally small eyeball
0000568
Optic nerve hypoplasia
0000609
Retinal dystrophy
Breakdown of light-sensitive cells in back of eye
0000556
Seizure
0001250

Diagnosis

Making a diagnosis for a genetic or rare disease can often be challenging. Healthcare professionals typically look at a person’s medical history, symptoms, physical exam, and laboratory test results in order to make a diagnosis. The following resources provide information relating to diagnosis and testing for this condition. If you have questions about getting a diagnosis, you should contact a healthcare professional.

Testing Resources

  • The Genetic Testing Registry (GTR) provides information about the genetic tests for this condition. The intended audience for the GTR is health care providers and researchers. Patients and consumers with specific questions about a genetic test should contact a health care provider or a genetics professional.

Learn more

These resources provide more information about this condition or associated symptoms. The in-depth resources contain medical and scientific language that may be hard to understand. You may want to review these resources with a medical professional.

In-Depth Information

  • GeneReviews provides current, expert-authored, peer-reviewed, full-text articles describing the application of genetic testing to the diagnosis, management, and genetic counseling of patients with specific inherited conditions.
  • The Monarch Initiative brings together data about this condition from humans and other species to help physicians and biomedical researchers. Monarch’s tools are designed to make it easier to compare the signs and symptoms (phenotypes) of different diseases and discover common features. This initiative is a collaboration between several academic institutions across the world and is funded by the National Institutes of Health. Visit the website to explore the biology of this condition.
  • Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) is a catalog of human genes and genetic disorders. Each entry has a summary of related medical articles. It is meant for health care professionals and researchers. OMIM is maintained by Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. 
  • Orphanet is a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Access to this database is free of charge.
  • PubMed is a searchable database of medical literature and lists journal articles that discuss Microphthalmia syndromic 5. Click on the link to view a sample search on this topic.