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Disease Profile

Baylisascaris infection

Prevalence
Prevalence estimates on Rare Medical Network websites are calculated based on data available from numerous sources, including US and European government statistics, the NIH, Orphanet, and published epidemiologic studies. Rare disease population data is recognized to be highly variable, and based on a wide variety of source data and methodologies, so the prevalence data on this site should be assumed to be estimated and cannot be considered to be absolutely correct.

Unknown

Age of onset

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ICD-10

#N/A

Inheritance

Autosomal dominant A pathogenic variant in only one gene copy in each cell is sufficient to cause an autosomal dominant disease

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Autosomal recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of each gene of the chromosome are needed to cause an autosomal recessive disease and observe the mutant phenotype

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X-linked
dominant X-linked dominant inheritance, sometimes referred to as X-linked dominance, is a mode of genetic inheritance by which a dominant gene is carried on the X chromosome.

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X-linked
recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of a gene on the X chromosome cause an X-linked recessive disorder

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Mitochondrial or multigenic Mitochondrial genetic disorders can be caused by changes (mutations) in either the mitochondrial DNA or nuclear DNA that lead to dysfunction of the mitochondria and inadequate production of energy.

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Multigenic or multifactor Inheritance involving many factors, of which at least one is genetic but none is of overwhelming importance, as in the causation of a disease by multiple genetic and environmental factors.

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Not applicable

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Summary

Baylisascaris roundworms are intestinal parasites found in many different animals.[1] Baylisascaris infection in humans is uncommon but can be severe. While Baylisascaris can infect different types of animals, Baylisascaris procyonis, carried by raccoons, is thought to pose the greatest risk to humans because raccoons often live in close proximity to humans.[1][2] Humans can acquire the parasite by ingesting the eggs of infected raccoons. Young children are at greatest risk for Baylisascaris infection because they are more likely to put contaminated soil in their mouths.[1][2] Though rare, human infections can be severe if the parasite invades the eye (ocular larva migrans), organs (visceral larva migrans), or the brain (neural larva migrans).[3] Symptoms of a Baylisascaris infection may include nausea, fatigue, an enlarged liver, loss of coordination, lack of muscle control, blindness, and coma.[1] Baylisascaris infections cannot be spread from one person to another.[1] No drug has been found to be completely effective against Baylisascaris infections in humans though albendazole has been used in some cases.[1]

Treatment

No drug has been found to be completely effective in treating Baylisascaris infections in humans.[4] Albendazole is currently considered to be the drug of choice. Corticosteroids may also be given to reduce inflammation. In many cases, significant damage has already occurred by the time treatment has started. Early diagnosis and treatment provide the best chance of recovery.[5]

Learn more

These resources provide more information about this condition or associated symptoms. The in-depth resources contain medical and scientific language that may be hard to understand. You may want to review these resources with a medical professional.

Where to Start

  • You can obtain information on this topic from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The CDC is recognized as the lead federal agency for developing and applying disease prevention and control, environmental health, and health promotion and education activities designed to improve the health of the people of the United States.
  • Iowa State University has a factsheet that provides information on the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of Baylisascaris infection in humans.

In-Depth Information

  • PubMed is a searchable database of medical literature and lists journal articles that discuss Baylisascaris infection . Click on the link to view a sample search on this topic.

References

  1. Parasites-Baylisascaris infection: Baylisascaris FAQs. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). October, 2012; https://www.cdc.gov/parasites/baylisascaris/gen_info/faqs.html. Accessed 6/25/2015.
  2. Parasites-Baylisascaris infection: Epidemiology and Risk Factors. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). October, 2012; https://www.cdc.gov/parasites/baylisascaris/epi.html. Accessed 6/25/2015.
  3. Parasites-Baylisascaris infection. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). October, 2012; https://www.cdc.gov/parasites/baylisascaris/. Accessed 6/25/2015.
  4. Parasites-Baylisascaris infection: Bayliascaris FAQs. October, 2012; https://www.cdc.gov/parasites/baylisascaris/gen_info/faqs.html. Accessed 6/25/2015.
  5. Baylisascariasis. Iowa State University. December, 2013; https://www.cfsph.iastate.edu/Factsheets/pdfs/baylisascariasis.pdf. Accessed 6/25/2015.
  6. Baylisascariasis. Iowa State University. December, 2013; https://www.cfsph.iastate.edu/Factsheets/pdfs/baylisascariasis.pdf. Accessed 6/26/2015.
  7. Parasites-Baylisascaris Infection: Resources for Health Professionals. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). October, 2012; https://www.cdc.gov/parasites/baylisascaris/health_professionals/. Accessed 6/26/2015.

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